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First Nations Lands Management Act (FNLMA)

What is land management?

Land management involves the day-to-day administration of reserve lands and resources and the right to legislate in respect of those lands and resources.

Oil and gas, fisheries, and migratory birds are not included in the resources to be managed under the Framework Agreement. Otherwise, the First Nation’s right to manage reserve lands and resources is comprehensive.

What is the Framework Agreement?

The Framework Agreement on First Nation Land Management is a government-to-government agreement signed on February 12, 1996, by 13 First Nations and Canada. One other First Nation was added as a Party as of December 10, 1996.

The Framework Agreement is an initiative by these 14 First Nations to opt-out of the land management sections of the Indian Act and take over responsibility for the management and control of their reserve lands and resources. The Framework Agreement sets out the principal components of this new land management process.

In March of 2003, the Framework Agreement was amended to allow for additional signatories or a “rolling 30” (30 First Nations actively developing land codes at any given time) to participate. A total of 52 First Nations have signed on to the Framework Agreement as of October 2007

The Framework Agreement provides these 52 First Nations with the option to manage their reserve lands under their own Land Codes. Until each of these First Nation communities develops and approves a Land Code to take control of its reserve lands and resources, federal administration of their reserve lands continues under the Indian Act.

Does the Framework Agreement affect Treaty rights?

No! The Framework Agreement is not a treaty and does not affect any treaty rights.

Does the Framework Agreement affect other Aboriginal rights?

No! The Framework Agreement is not intended to define or prejudice inherent rights, or any other rights, of First Nations to control their lands or resources or to preclude other negotiations in respect of those rights.